AZ9RBAYCAN MEMARLIGININ KLASSiKL9Ri. KllACCUKH A3EPBAifAX<AHCKOU APXUTEKTYPhl

AZ9RBAYCAN MEMARLIGININ KLASSiKL9Ri KllACCUKH A3EPBAifAXapo•a

III.a-ryAllaeB-4>HrapoB. KilacCHKH A3ep6aAAJKaHcKoA apXHTeK-rypl>l. Kacj>ap l'bMaAiloB.

Author Gwendolyn Bond

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AZ9RBAYCAN MEMARLIGININ KLASSiKL9Ri KllACCUKH A3EPBAifAXapo•a

III.a-ryAllaeB-4>HrapoB. KilacCHKH A3ep6aAAJKaHcKoA apXHTeK-rypl>l. Kacj>ap l'bMaAiloB. Ba>KHllOH AOM MaMeA CMDixa

HHJI 2-x 3Ta:>KHDIH :>KHllOH AOM Alln-BepAH Ma-

faA:>KH Mo11a KaCDIM or11DI Ha KaMeHHCTOH

MeA ,4:>Kaap or11DI Ha yr11y M.fop~>Koro H qa-

y11. 1 1887 r.

APOBOHI 1891 r. 1.

2-x 3Ta:>KHDIH :>KHllOH AOM Ha CypaxaHcKotl:

2.

y11. 1 A6ac Ky11n or11DI1 1892 r. 2-x 3Ta:>KHDIH :>KHllOH AOM Ha KpacHo-KpeCTOBCKOH y11. 1 Kep6a11an ,4:>Ka6ao or11DI1 1892 r.

3.

2-x 3Ta:>KHDIH :>KHllOH AOM Kep6a11an XaAHra 1 1880 r.

4.

2-x 3Ta:>KHDIH :>KHllOH AOM2-otl: fHllMHH Kynu;a Ara 6a6a faA:>KH CaMeA or11DI Ha A3HacTKotl: y11. 1 1886 r.

5. 6. 7.

2-x 3Ta:>KHDIH :>KHllOH AOM1 1886 r. 2-x 3Ta:>KHoe JAaHHe no HH:>KHe-Ta3annp-

19. 2-x 3Ta:>KHoe 3AaHHe :>KHlloro AOMa 2-otl: fHllbAHH K)'IID;a Kep6a11aH Mycraa fM:>KH Pacy11oBa Ha lloqTOBOH II110~MH1 1887 r. 20. 2-x 3Ta:>KHOe JAaHHe :>KHllOro AOMa A6Ay111la-6eKa AMnpoBa Ha lloqTOBOH n11o~aAH1 1887 r. 21. 1-o 3Ta:>KHoe 3AaHHe AMHp-6eKa HacDip6eKOBa B patl:oHe qeM6epeKeHAa1 1890 r. 22. 2-x 3Ta:>KHoe 3AaHHe Kep6a11aH Mynapa KJ!3HMOBa Ha lloqTOBOH y11. 1 1890 r. 23. 1-o 3Ta:>KHoe 3AaHHe MellHKa 1 1887 r.

2-x 3Ta:>KHDIH :>KHllOH AOM MemMH Bara6a1

24. 1-o 3Ta:>KHoe 3AaHHe 3axapa qepHJieBa Ha

2-x 3Ta:>KHDIH :>KHllOH AOM A6Ay11 AcaHa CallHMOBa Ha CypaxaHCKOH y11.1 1886 r.

52

1la Kb13bl Ha yr11y qMpOBOH H u;epKOBHOH1 1880 r.

cKotl: y11. 1 1890 r. 1891 r. 8.

18. 2-x 3Ta:>KHDIH :>KHllOH AOM XaHJM Hyry11-

ceBepHotl: qacrn ropoAa1 1888 r. 25. 2-x 3Ta:>KHOe 3AaHHe :>KHllOro AOMa Ycetl:H faA:>KH A6Ay1111a orllbi1 1890 r.

26. 2-x 3Ta)I(HOe 3AaHMe )I(H1J.Oro AOMa Ha TeAe-

7.

cpoHHOH yA., 1890 r.

fa,KHAbiX 3AaHHH OXOTHO HCnOAn3yeT apXHTeK-

30BaHHeM AeTaAeH B BHAe 3aMKOBbiX KaMHeH.

TJPHJIO KOMn03HQHIO C BapHaQHRMH pH3a-

TpaAHQHOHHO HaA rAaBHDIM KapHH30M npn-

AHTOB,

n03BOARIOIQyiO 6oAee nOAHO pacKpbiTb

CJTCTayeT aTTHK. ApxnTeKTop K. li13Ma:i1:Aoa orpaHHtieHHDI-

crpyKTJPHDie OC06eHHOCTH. ,4Byx3Ta:>KHDI:i1: )I(J1A0H AOM X~H Ma-

MH apXHTeKTJPHDIMH cpeACTBaMH BblnOAHReT

Me,.!l, Kep6aAaH MaMe,.!!, orADI Ha KpaCHOBOACKO:i1:

CBOIO YHKQHIO l1 A06HaaeTCR nOAO:>KHTeAbHO-

yAnu;e (1889 r.) npHHMAe)I(J1T K TOM Kareropnn

ro pe3yA~>TaTa. OH crapaeTCR nocroRHHO B npo-

npoeKTOB. ac~ He60AbiiiOH IIpOTR:>KeHHOCTH

eKTax BHeCTH HOBbie MOTHBbl l1 3AeMeHTbl, no

pa36HT Ha tieTDipe BePTHKaAbHDie ceKQHH. Ha

CBOeMy O:>KHBHTb apXHTeKTYPY ac~OB, 'IT06bl

nepaoM waxe CAeaa npoe3A ao ABOp, crrpaaa TPH

3AaHHe aKTHBHO yqacTBOBaAO B 3aCTpO:i1:Ke ro-

npoeMa Mara3HHOB, Ha BTOpOM no OCRM napHDie

poAaEaKy.

oKHa. ,LJ,aa pH3aAHTa BKAIOtiaiOTCR Ha noaepx-

IlpoeKT AByx3Ta:>KHoro :>KHAoro AOMa

HOCTD q,a~, C J1AeHTHtiHbiMH npHeMaMHH 3Ae-

apXHTeKTOpa K. Ji13MaHAOBa Ha IJ;epKOBHOH

MeHTaMH. CoxpaHReTCR o6IQCUI rapMoHHR, q,ac~

yAnu;e, nocTpoeHHDIH no 3aKa3y 6aKHHCKoro

BbiCTyiiaeT B HOBOM Katiecrae B 3acrpo:i1:Ke YAHQDI. )I(HAo:i1: AOM Ha yrAy IlepCHACKO:i1: 11 A3H-

:>KHTeAR

Ara-Ea6a 3e:i1:HaA-A6AHH orADI B 1893

roAY, 6DIA coaepiiieHHo Apyroro xapaKTepa, He-

aTcKo:i1: YAHU: no 3aKa3Y 6aKHHCKoro :>KHTeAR

CMOTPR Ha accnMeTpHtiHbiH pn3aAHT 11 napHDie

MeiiiaAH ,L'l,:>Kaq,apa apxnTeKrop Kaq,ap li13-

nHARCTpbi Ha BTOpOM 3Ta:>Ke Ha rpaHHQe CO-

roAy. Y Hero

CeAHero BAaAeHHR. ApxnTeKTJPHOe y6paHCTBO

H3AI06AeHHDie npneMDI 11 oH c YAOBOAbCTBHeM

HaCDIIQeHO HeCMOTpR Ha He60AbiiiHe ra6apHTbl.

Ma:i1:AOB 3anpoeKTHp0BaA B 1889 npnMeHReT HX a Hawe. Ka C MOIQHOH pycTOBKOH RBHAOCb o6IQHM

3Ta:>Ke napaAHDIM BXOAOM, Ha BTOpOM napHbiMH

HanpaBAeHHeM K KAaCCHtieCKHMH MOTHBaMH.

OKHaMH. PH3aAHT noAyqHA HOByiO TpaKTOBKY, B

Pn3aAHT Ha nepaoM 3Ta:>Ke npeACTaaAeH IIIH-

apXHTeKTJPHyiO KOMn03HQHIO q,ac~a BKAIOtia-

poKHM npoeMOM ABOpoaoro npoe3Aa 11 napHDI-

eTCR KAaCCHtieCKOro THna q,poHTOH. K. Ji13Ma:i1:-

MH OKOHaMH. B TOT nepHOA AI06oe 3AaHJ1e HAM

59

coopy:>KeHHe o611a.4aJJ.O ABOpOBbiM npocTpaH-

Hhle, TeM He MeHee oqeHb HHTepeCHhle, C TQqKH

CTBOM, 3aKlliOqeHHhiM B C06CTBeHHhiH yqacTOK.

3peHHJI o6pa~eHHR K Ha~HOHallbHOMY HaC.lle-

Ka)l(,ll,hiH 3Ta:>K cpaca.4a apxnTeKTJPHO OT-

AHIO. B BepTHKaJJ.bHOM ~eHeHHH cpaca.40B Ha

pa6oTaH B 3aBHCHMOCTH OT CBOero Ha3Haqe-

BTOpOM 3Ta:>Ke npHMeHeHbl B BHAe llH.llRCTpOB

HHJI. Ha nepBoM 3Ta:>Ke noAqepKHJT napaAHhiH

o6o6~eHHbiH pHCJHOK KOllOHHhl H3 KOMnlleKca

BXOA, a pRAOM oKHa c HaJJ.nqHHKaMH H caHApH-

ABOp~a lllnpBaHIIIaxoB, B qacrHOCTH 3HaMeHH-

KaMH. PyCTOBKa, KaK BCerAa BhlllOllHReT CBOH

Toro ,L\HBaH-xaHe.

cpJH~HH, npHAaBaJI 3HaqnTe.llbHOCTb cpaca.4y C

ApxnTeKTOP npoeKTHPYR H cTpoR Ha cpop-

IIIHpOKHMH llH.llOHaMH, a llOKaJI.bHaJI CBO,li,HaTaJI

IIITaATe Eaey H

CTeHa JIB.llJieTCJI cpOHOBOH, CO Clla6o Bbipa:>KeH-

:>KHllhiX AOMOB, HeCOMHeHHO o6paTH.ll BHHMa-

HOH Klla.4KOH.

B J1qepn-IIIexep MHO:>KeCTBO

HHe Ha cpeAHeBeKOBbe 3QAqeCTBO Ha Ka)l(,li,OM

ApxnTeKTop

K.

lihMaH.lloB npHAaJJ. nepBo-

yqacrKe ApeBHeH KpenOCTH, oco6eHHO BO ABOp-

MY 3Ta:>Ky 3aMeTeyro MOHJMeHTaJJ.bHOCTb, KaK-

~e lllnpBaHIIIaxoB. OH peiiiHll ncnollb30BaTb

6hl CBOeo6pa3HhiH llbe,ll,eCTaJJ. npH He60llbiiiHX

rpaHeHHJIO KOllOHHJ, KaK apXHTeKTJPHhiH 31le-

ra6apHTaX 3AaHHR. 3aKa3qHKJ 6hlllO npHRTHO,

MeHT, npnqeM B yAaqHQH cpopMe npHBJI3aJJ. K

qTo B 3aCTpo:tl:Ke YllH~hl Hera :>KHllOH ADM aK-

MeCTHhiM yCAoBHRM. HaM HeH3BeCTHbi 3aKa3qHK, xpoHo.llornqe-

THBHO yqaCTByeT. 3TO 6hlllO BpeMJI B crpOHTe.llbCTBe ropOAa,

cKHe H aApeCHhle ,ll,aHHhle npoeKTa cpaeaAa

AByx-

KOrAa Ka)l(,li,Oe :>KH.llOe 3,ll,aHHe BhiCTJfiaJI.O, KaK

3Ta:>KHoro yr11oBoro AOMa. ApxnreKTYPa cpaeaAa

3aMeTHOe 3BeHo B o6~e:tl: 3acTpo:tl:Ke Eaey.

HeOp,li,HHapHaR, npHB.lleKaeT BHHMaHHe peiiieHH-

noC.lle,li,OBaTellbHO

eM KOMll03H~OHHOH CTpJKTYPbl. IlpOTR:>KeH-

apXHTeKTJPHhle

HhiH cpaCaA pa36HT BeP™KaJJ.bHhiMH ~eHeHHJI­

MOTHBhl, BBOAJITCR «THllOBhle» napHhle llH.llJI-

MH c pycroBKo:tl: Ha nRTb H,ll,eHT~ ce~n:tl:. Ha

BTopo:tl: pa3BHBaeTCJI,

3Ta:>K

cpaca.4a

yr11y611RIOTCJI

crphl. 0KOHHhle npoeMhl C pe3KO BhiAelleHHhi-

nepBoM 3Ta:>Ke llRTh KpynHhiX ToproBhiX BHTPHH

MH caHApHKaMH onnpaiOTCJI Ha o6pa6oTaHHhle

llJKOB~OH cpopMOH C pycroBKOH, KOTOphle no

B TaKOM :>Ke KlliOqe llHllOHhl, yqaCTByeT H OTKpO-

MaCIIITa6y npe,li,CTaBllRIOT CTO.ll~IH BH,ll,.

BeHHaJI ll.llaCTHKa. fopH30HTa.llbHhle ~eHeHHR

BepXHOCTh BHTPHH pa36ma Ha CTeKOllbHhle jiqeft-

IIo-

Me:>K,ll,y3Ta:>KHhiX TRr H llOAqepKHJThiH r.llaBHhiH

KH, o6pa3yR reoM~nqecKH:tl: pHCJHOK. 06JI3a-

KapHH3 C aTTHKOM, 3aKpenH.llH apXHTeKTJPHJIO

TellbHaJI ropH30HTaJI.bHaJI TJira H npRMOyrollnHhle

KOMn03H~HIO. ApxnTeKTOP Kacpap li13MaH11oB

3acraBKH Ha.4 BHTPHHaMH

C Ka)l(,ll,hiM HOBhiM npoeKTOM BeCbMa ycneiiiHO

ll~hle nponop~H pmM~hiX ce~n:tl:.

paCIIIHpReT CBOIO

npeBpa~aiOTCJI

B OT-

BTopo:tl: 3Ta:>K c napHhiMH OKOHHhiMH npo-

KOH~en~HIO.

B npoeKTe :>KH.lloro AOMa 6aKHHCKoro :>KHTe-

eMaMH yCAo:>KHReT apxnTeKTJPHOe peiiieHHe.

llR Ara-BepAH Kep6aJJ.aH MaMeA ,L\:>Kacpap orllhl

Ka)l(,ll,oe oKHo caMOCTORTellLHaR THnoBaJI eAH-

Ha yr11y qaApoBo:tl: H M. fop~>Koro y11n~ax

(1891

HH~a, o611a.4aiO~aR o6~HM MOTHBOM H pnT-

r.) apXHTeKTOp npHMeHReT H3BeCTHhle npHeMhl

MOM. 0KOHHhiH npoeM llYKOBnqHQH cpopMhl

C pH3aJJ.HTOM H pycroBKOH. 0,li,HaKO, 3AeCb B

HaCbi~eH

apXHTeKTJPHOH TpaKTOBKe cpaCaAOB npORB.llJI-

31leMeHTaMH, BbiTRHJTOH K0Mll03H~HH. Ilpo-

IOTCJI HOBble MOTHBhl, COBepiiieHHO HeH3BeCT-

cpH11HpOBaHHbie HaJJ.nqHHKH 3aBepiiiaiOTCJI 3aM-

60

apxnTeKTJPHhiMH H AeKopaTHBHhiMH

KOBbiMH KaMIDIMH. ApxHTeKTop 3a,J.yMM Ha,J.

KAaccnqecKHM IIOpTaAOM opMHpyiOT oHO-

OKOHHbiMH rrpoeMaMH pa3MeCTHTb Bblrry:KI.LOH

BOe Ha3HaqeHHe.

opMbi pHCJHOK poHToHa c KpoHmTeHHaMH,

QoKOAb, C IIO,J.BallbHbiMH rrpoeMaMH pa3-

a IIO,J.OKOHHHKH pa3,J.p06HTb Ha MaAhle reoMe-

6HT pycroBKOH H CAY:>KHT rrhe,J.eCTali.OM MH

K.

TpnqecKHe 3AeMeHThl. liho6HAHe ,J.eKopaTHB-

ropn30HTallbHOro aca,J.a. ApxnTeKTOP

HbiX MaCC rrpeBaAHpOBaAO Ha,J. apXHTeKTJPHbi-

MaHAOB rrpoBeA 60AbmyiO IIAacrnqeCKJIO pa-

MH rrpHeMaMH.

6ory

J13-

6Aaro,J.apH peAbeHoH rrepe4aqe apXH-

Kaap l13MaHAoBy BlfAHMO ,J.OCTaACH 3a-

TeKTJPHbiX 3AeMeHTOB, aca,J. rrpeBpaTHACH B

Ka3qHK C 60AbillHMH Tpe60BaHHHMH K apxH-

CTHAbHJIO apXHTeKrypHJIO KOMII03HIJ;HIO. Brro-

TeKrype H OH BOCII0Ab30Bali.CH OTBeTHTb Ha 3TH

CAe,J.CTBHH apXHTeKTop qacro IIOBTOpHA B CBO-

Tpe6oBaHHH IIO,J.06HbiM 6oraTCTBOM ,J.eKopa.

HX rrpoeKTaX IIOAyu;HpK)'AbHJIO apK)', KOTOpaH

ApXHreKTOp K lihMaHAOB pa3pa6aTb!BaH rrpoeKTHble MaTepHallhl, B OCHOBHOM 6a3HpOBali.CH Ha

rrpOH3BO,J.HAa 3HaqHTeAbHbiH 3eKT B ofueMHO-IIpOCTpaHCTBeHHOH crpyKrype aca,J.OB.

I'eOMeTplfqeCKHX rrpHeMax apXHTeKTJPbl, HCII0Ab-

npoeKT AByx3Ta:>KHoro :>KHAOro ,J.OMa c rro-

30Ball qacro IIpHMOyroAbHble OKOHHble H .J.BepHble

BhlmeHHbiM u;oKoAeM AAH K)'IIu;a 1-oH rHAb,J.HH

rrpoeMbi, y.J.o6Hhle rrpn crpoHreAbCTBe.

Mbi

Bbi-

AAHeBa Ha yrAOBOM yqacrKe nepCH,J.CKOH YAH-

26 MapTa

HBHAH rrpoeKThi :>KHAbiX 3,J.aJIHH, B KOTOpbie OXOT-

IJ;bl, yrnep:>K,J.eHHbiH ropo,J.CKOH AJMOH

HO BBe,J.eHbl 3AeMeHThl IIOAYQHPK)'AbHOH opMhl,

1890 ro,J.y, apxnTeKTop

II03BOAHIOIQHe IDHpe paCKpbiTh xy.J.O:>KeCTBeHHble

B HOBhlX apXHTeKTJPHbiX rro3HIJ;HHX. Ha aca,J.e

OcOOeHHOCTH apXHTeKTJPHOH KOMII03~H.

CAeBa rrpe,J.Ao:>KHA paCKperrOBK)', a Ha rrepBoM

B

1889 r. apxnTeKTOP

BMeCTHo

C

KOMIIaHbOHOM

K.

l13MaHAOB co-

3arrpoeKTHpOBaA

3Ta:>Ke

rrpe,J.craBHA

K.

l13MaHAOB cocraBHA

KPYIIHJIO

rroAyu;HpK)'Ab-

HJIO co BCeMH aTpH6JTaMH KAaccnqecK)'IO apK)'.

IIOAJTOpa3Ta:>KHbiH :>KHAOH ,J.OM ,J.AH co6crBeH-

llopTallbHaH apXHTeKTJPHaH KOMII03HIJ;HH IIQ-

HOro rrpo:>KHBaHHH B paHoHe fy6epHCKOH YAH-

HpaBHAaCb apXHTeKTopy H oH c YAOBOAbCTBHeM

IJ;hl, KOTOpaH TOAbKO OCBaHBallaCb H 3acrpaHBa-

rrpHMeHHA ee B HOBOM rrpoeKTe.

AaCb. KoMrraKTHhlH rrpHMoyroAbHhlH yqacroK

PH3ali.HT o6oraiiJ;eHHhlH Ha BTopoM 3Ta:>Ke

C ll-o6pa3HOH 3acrpoHKOH Ha ,J.Be KBapTHpbi C

rrapHbiMH IIHAHcrpaMH, ABYMH OKHaMH, yCAo:>K-

yroTHbiM .J.BOPOBhlM rrpocrpaHCTBOM.

r AaBHbiH

aca,J. o6paiiJ;eHHbiH Ha YAHu;y

HeHHbiH pa3BHTbiM KapHH30M H aTTHKOM C 6aAHCHHaMH, rrpe,J.CTaBAHA HH)'IO apXHTeKrypHJIO

rrpe,J.CTaBAeH oqeHb HHTepeCHbiH apXHTeKTJP-

TpaKTOBKJ. Pn3aAHT :>KHAoro ,J.OMa apxnTeKTOP

HOH KOMII03Hu;neH. BeAHKOAerrHo BhliiOAHeH-

,J.all B HOBOM BapHaHTe, crpeMHCb HCIIOAb30BaTb

HbiH KAaccnqecKHH rropTaA ,J.AH BXO,J.a BO ,J.BOp,

KOHTpaCTHOe

H3

CHAbHOH

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apXHTeKTJPHbiX

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opM H 3AeMeHToB, qTo eMy H yAaAOCb. Ha

IIOAyu;HpKyAbHOH apKH C 3aMKOBbiM KaMHeM.

aca,J.e ropH30HTaAbHhle qAeHeHHH ycHAeHhl B

COCTaBAeH

llo 6oKaM IIHAHCTpbi TOCKaHCKOfO Op,J.epa C 6a-

D;OKOAe, Me:>K,J.y3Ta:>KHaH qacrb IIOAyqHAa THrn,

3aMH, Bbi,J.BHHJTbiMH KapHH3aMH C IIOBblilleH-

rrpeBpaTHAHCb B 3aMeTHbiH KapHH3.

HbiM aTTHKOM, ,J.eKopaTHBHbiMH 3AeMeHTaMH.

Pa6oTaH Ha,J. apXHTeKTJPOH aca,J.a, apXH-

CrrpaBa IIHTb OKOHHbiX rrpoeMOB, IIOAyqHBillHX

TeKTop pemHA rrpn,J.aTb 3,J.aHHIO KyrreqecKoe

TIIJ;aTeAbHJIO CBOIO pa3pa60TKJ, HO pH.J.OM c

CO,J.ep:>KaHHe. 06oraTHA apXHTeKTJPHbiMH 3Ae-

61

MeHTaMH OKOHHble rrpoeMbi Ha 3Ta:>Kax, rrpeA-

IOTCJI eHMMeTpHqHOM KOMI103HQHeM.

craBHll H pyeTOBIKe pa3Me~eHhi rrpoeMhi

HHKali.H H H,il,eHTHqHble apXHTeKTJPHble rrpoeK-

Mara3HHOB, Ha BTOpOM-KBapTHpa X03JIHHa. ,Ll,BO-

Tbi e HeKOTOpbiMH HIOaHeaMH.

poBOe rrpocrpaHeTBO yAo6HoM rrpHMOJfOlli>HOM

IIpoeKT ,ii,BJX3Ta:>KHoro :>KHlloro ,ii,OMa Ha

opMbi B OTllJ1:qHbiX rrporropQHHX. ITo 6oKaM

rrpHMOJfOlli>HOM yqacrKe Ha yr11y HH:>KHetf Ta-

pn3allHTa BToporo 3Ta:>Ka paerrollO:>KHli.He» TPH

JarrnpeKOM H CypaxaHeKOM JllHQ, 3aKaJqnKa

OKOHHI>IX rrpoeMa e rrpeTeHQH03HOM apXHTeK-

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3

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fO,il,a H rrpHHa,il,lle:>KHT

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e

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OTlJ.HqaeTeJI OTlJ.HqHbiMH rrporropQHOHallbHbi-

HeeeT eBOH JHKQHH. EOKOBOM aea,il, KOMITaKT-

MH ,il,aHHbiMH KaK rllaBHOrO, TaK H 60KOBOrO

HbiM, 3,il,ee» yqaeTByeT ApyraH apxnTeKTJPHaH

aea,ii,OB.

KOMI103HQHH e ,ii,BJMH yrllOBbiMH pH3ali.HTaMH,

HO-rrpoeTpaHeTBeHHaJI

KOMI103HQHJI

ApxnTeKTop Kaap l13MaMllOB rrpn eo-

rrpe,i!,eTaBlleHHhiMH KaK rropTaAI>Hhle rrpneMhi.

craBlleHHH aea,ii,OB ,ii,OMa Be11neBa, nerroll»-

Ha OeH pH3allHTOB BTOporo 3Ta:>Ka OCHOBHbiMH

30BM eBOH apXHTeKTJpHbie rrpHBJI3aHHOCTH B

apXHTeKTJPHI>IMH 3lleMeHTaMH JIBllHIOTCJI 110-

HOBOM TpaKTOBKe. 06a aea,il,a ,ii,OMa OTlJ.nqa-

llJQHpiaCa,ll B apx~neKrypHOM OTHOilleHHH pa3,l\eAeH Ha qeT»rpe BepTHKaAbHbie

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65

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(1417-1462 rr.) K HeMy npHMbiKaAH Apyrne TOp-

cpeAHIOIO Teppacy, Me:>KAY A:>KYMa-MeqeTLIO

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(1309-1310; 1378-1379 IT.) H MeKT36-MeqeTbiO

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(1646-1647 rr.) BbiXOAHAa Ha HH:>KHIOIO Teppacy

72

H 3aBepiiia.llaCb J KpenOCTHOH CTeHbl, o6parn;eH-

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